Alitalia is a member of an international airline alliance called the SkyTeam. The airlines that are part of the SkyTeam alliance are Aeroflot, Aeromexico, Continental, Delta, CSA Czech Airlines, Korean Air, KLM, Air France, Northwest and China Southern Airlines.
Although Alitalia does not directly operate any flights to and from South Africa, it is in a position to offer flights to Italy via some of its alliance partners: Air France, Delta and KLM.
Delta Airlines operate out of Johannesburg and offer direct flights to Atlanta, Dakar and Paris. You can take a connecting flight into Italy from any one of these cities.
Air France operates out of Durban, Cape Town, East London, Johannesburg, George and Port Elizabeth. In addition to being the only alliance partner to offer direct flights to Rome and Venice, Air France also flies to Paris, Barcelona, Brussels, Frankfurt, Geneva, London, Chicago, New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco
KLM operates out of Johannesburg, Durban, Port Elizabeth and Cape Town. Direct flights are offered by KLM to Toronto, Vancouver, Amsterdam, Madrid, Rome, Los Angeles, London, Paris, New York, Chicago, Geneva, Berlin and Glasgow. From most of these cities you can directly connect into Italy.